Read Chapter 16 (will be attached) entitled, “Beyond Word Study: Reading Fluency” (pp. 250-271). Some of the questions answered in this chapter are: What is Fluency? Why is Fluency Important? The chapter also gives examples of how teachers can build fluency. You have two options for this discussion posting:Option 1: In this discussion posting, describe
some challenges of fluency instruction. Use the text as a source of
evidence for your thinking. In addition, you must refer to another text
besides your textbook to support your thinking. Option 2: On page 268, Rasinski
and Padak (2013) write, “The entire class reads the text chorally
several times. The teacher creates variety by having students read
different verses or portions of the texts in groups.” Choral reading is
when students read the same text at the same time out loud. Read this
web article for more information about choral reading (…) . Choral
reading is a preferable strategy to popcorn reading, or round robin
reading; which is deemed as ineffective by many reading experts and
reading teachers.

Here is an opinion piece about the topic: Why Round Robin and Popcorn Reading are Evil –…Here is another web article about the issue: 5 Reasons Not to Use Round Robin Reading with ELLs –
another op-ed or scholarly article about the topic. Write your own
opinion piece using evidence as support. Answer the following questions:
What is your opinion on popcorn reading/round robin reading and choral reading? What is your personal and professional experience with these reading strategies? What type of oral reading strategies will you use in your
classroom to support fluency? (This site offers alternatives to
effective oral reading strategies: Good-bye round robin: 25 effective oral reading strategies (will be attached)).Good-bye Round Robin
25 Effective Oral Reading Strategies
Updated Edition
Michael F. Opitz
Timothy V. Rasinski
Portsmouth, NH
361 Hanover Street
Portsmouth, NH 03801–3912
Offices and agents throughout the world
© 2008, 1998 by Michael F. Opitz and Timothy V. Rasinski
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any
electronic or mechanical means, including information storage and retrieval
systems, without permission in writing from the publisher, except by a reviewer,
who may quote brief passages in a review, with the exception of reproducible
pages, which are identified by the Good-bye Round Robin copyright line and can be
photocopied for classroom use only.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Opitz, Michael F.
Good-bye round robin : 25 effective oral reading strategies / Michael F. Opitz,
Timothy V. Rasinski. — Updated ed.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references.
ISBN-13: 978-0-325-02580-3
ISBN-10: 0-325-02580-0
1. Oral reading. I. Rasinski, Timothy V. II. Title.
LB1573.5.O65 2008
Editor: Kate Montgomery
Production: Vicki Kasabian
Text design: Joyce Weston Design
Cover design: Night & Day Design
Typesetter: Kim Arney
Manufacturing: Louise Richardson
Printed in the United States of America on acid-free paper
12 11 10 09 08 RRD 1 2 3 4 5
To all children
who will find joy and satisfaction
through authentic oral reading
Preface to Updated Edition vii
Acknowledgments xv
Introduction xvii
1. Understanding Reading
So What Is Reading, Anyhow? 1
Twelve Reasons for Using Oral Reading 3
Why Move Away from Round Robin Reading? 10
2. Developing Comprehension
Think-Aloud 15
Induced Imagery 20
Directed Listening Thinking Activity (DLTA) 24
Look for the Signals 28
Say It Like the Character 32
Rapid Retrieval of Information (RRI) 36
Read to Discover 39
3. Sharing and Performing
Revised Radio Reading 45
Shared Book Experience 48
Choral Reading 51
Mentor Reading 54
Readers Theatre 56
Read Around 61
Poetry Club 64
4. Helping Struggling Readers
Read-Aloud 69
Paired Reading 73
Recorded Texts 76
Listen to Children Read 80
Fluency Development Lesson (FDL) 82
5. Guiding Assessment
How to Use Oral Reading to Assess Reading 86
The What, Why, and How of Oral Reading Assessment
Strategies 86
Procedures for Administering Informal Oral
Reading Assessments 89
6. Involving Parents
Four Ways to Communicate with Parents 101
Three Additional Ways to Connect Home and School 107
Concluding Thoughts 110
7. Answering Questions About Oral Reading
Appendix A: More Recommended Children’s Literature by Strategy 120
Appendix B: Recommended Websites by Strategy 125
Works Cited 129
Preface to Updated Edition
ilent reading is the way we most often read in everyday life. So
why is this book about purposeful and meaningful oral reading
strategies? And if we are to value oral reading, why are we saying good-bye to round robin reading, “the outmoded practice of calling
on students to read orally one after the other” (Harris and Hodges
1995, 222)?
Answers to these two questions form the foundation of this text.
But our desire to round out the answers to these most important
questions leads us to emphasize six points in this preface. First, consider the National Reading Panel’s findings (2000) on oral reading. As
a result of investigating the topic, the panel concluded, “guided
repeated oral reading procedures that included guidance from teachers, peers, or parents had a significant and positive impact on word
recognition, fluency, and comprehension across a range of levels.”
They continued, “These results also apply to all students—good readers as well as those experiencing reading difficulties.” Given that we
want to help children to become the best possible readers, oral reading
appears anything but a choice.
But choice does enter when we think about the types of oral reading activities we use and why we should use them in place of others. As
we emphasize in Chapter 1, there are specific reasons for using oral
reading yet there are also numerous reasons for ridding ourselves of
round robin reading. Clearly, in this text, we say “Hello!” to meaningful,
purposeful oral reading strategies and “Good-bye!” to the rest.
Second, we realize that English language learners (ELLs) are the
norm rather than the exception in most classrooms, leaving many
teachers to search out the best ways to help these children acquire English in authentic contexts. Using specific oral reading strategies shown
in this book is one way to do just that. Figure A provides the stages of
language proficiencies along with a description of each, implications for
oral reading instruction, and specific, appropriate oral reading strategies
Figure A. English Language Proficiency Levels, Descriptions, Implications, and Purposeful
Oral Reading Strategies
Stages of Language
Implications for
Using Oral Reading
Purposeful Oral
Reading Strategies
Students are in a silent
period in which they listen
but do not speak in English.
They may respond using
nonverbal cues in attempt to
communicate basic needs.
Oral reading should be
modeled by the teacher and
other students. Students in
the silent period should not
be forced to speak but should
be given the opportunity to
try, if they want, in a group
activity where they won’t be
singled out.
• Shared Book Experience
• Choral Reading
• Read-Aloud
• Recorded Text
• Fast Start
Stage 2: Early Production
Students are beginning to
understand more oral
language. They respond
using one- or two-word
phrases and start to produce
simple sentences for basic
social interactions and to
meet basic needs.
Teacher and students should
continue to model oral
reading. Students should be
encouraged to begin taking
risks with simple, rehearsed
oral reading in nonthreatening situations.
• Read to Discover
• Shared Book Experience
• Choral Reading
• Mentor Reading
• Paired Reading
• Read-Aloud
• Recorded Text
• Fast Start
Stage 3: Speech
Emergence (Developing)
Students’ listening
comprehension improves,
and they can understand
written English. Students are
fairly comfortable engaging
in social conversations using
simple sentences, but they
are just beginning to
develop their academic
language proficiency.
Students continue to learn
through modeling. Students
should be participating in
whole-class, small-group,
partner, and rehearsed oral
reading activities. They will
need support and opportunities to practice with feedback before independent or
paired oral reading for an
• Think-Aloud
• Induced Imagery
• Directed Listening Thinking
• Revised Radio
• Reading
• Choral Reading
• Mentor Reading
• Readers Theatre
• Poetry Club
• Paired Reading
• Listen to Children Read
• Fluency Development
• Fast Start
Stage 1: Preproduction
(Slight accommodations may
need to be made so as not
to force production.)
Stages of Language
Implications for
Using Oral Reading
Purposeful Oral
Reading Strategies
Stage 4: Intermediate
Fluency (Expanding)
Students understand and
frequently use conversational English with relatively
high accuracy. They are able
to communicate their ideas
in both oral and written
With scaffolding, students
can successfully participate
in most all oral reading activities that native speakers
are expected to complete.
Open-ended questions
will allow students to
demonstrate comprehension and academic language
• Think-Aloud
• Induced Imagery
• Directed Listening Thinking
• Look for the Signals
• Say It Like the Character
• Rapid Retrieval of
• Revised Radio Reading
• Readers Theatre
• Read Around
• Poetry Club
• Read-Aloud
• Paired Reading
Stage 5: Advanced Fluency
Students comprehend and
engage in conversational
and academic English with
proficiency. They perform
near grade level in reading,
writing, and other content
Students should be
encouraged to use higherlevel thinking skills during
their oral reading. They are
near native-like proficiency in
oral reading, but may still
need support with analyzing,
inferring, and evaluating.
• Induced Imagery
• Directed Listening Thinking
• Look for the Signals
• Say It Like the Character
• Rapid Retrieval of
• Read-Aloud
• Paired Reading
• Read Around
• Poetry Club
included in this book for each stage. Figure B illustrates how the strategies cut across the various stages. Taken together, both figures serve as
reminders that there is much language variation among ELLs. While
some oral reading strategies cut across these levels, others are more germane to the distinct stages. Recognizing that there are different stages of
language proficiency, teachers can select the most appropriate strategies
to maximize students’ learning.
Figure B. English Language Proficiency Levels and Oral Reading Strategies
Stage 2:
Stage 3:
Stage 4:
Stage 5:

Induced Imagery

Directed Listening Thinking Activity

Look for the Signals

Say It Like the Character

Rapid Retrieval of Information

Oral Reading Strategies
Stage 1:
Silent Period

Read to Discover
Revised Radio Reading

Shared Book Experience

Choral Reading

Mentor Reading

Readers Theater

Read Around

Listen to Children Read

Fluency Development Lessons

Modified Miscue Analysis

Retrospective Miscue Analysis

Student Self-Evaluation

Multidimensional Fluency Scale

Reading Rate

Poetry Club

Paired Reading
Recorded Texts
Fast Start

Third, there are elementary school teachers who champion oral
reading as one way to help children maximize their full potential as
readers yet abhor round robin reading, the one and only oral reading
strategy they recall from childhood. From them come some valuable
insights into the strategies we showcase in this text. Patty comments,
“Very often we teachers get stuck in a practice like round robin reading because it is so prevalent. But just because a practice is prevalent
doesn’t mean it is OK! The strategies in Good-bye Round Robin are
like little eye-openers, reminding me that reading fluently is an
important skill, but there are effective and ineffective ways to best
help my students learn it.” Julia adds, “The strategies in this book provide authentic read-aloud experiences for students that naturally lead
to repeated readings, which strengthens fluency.” But perhaps the real
clincher comes from Ashley, a first-grade teacher who admonishes,
“Throw the popcorn to the robins! It’s a new day.” What these representative comments help us to see is that more teachers than not are
on a quest to discover better ways to instruct the students they are
fortunate to teach.
Fourth, with nearly 5,000 children’s books published annually, we
are not at a loss for fitting authentic books that can assist teachers in
teaching the specific oral reading strategies herein. We provide ten
titles for each oral reading strategy in this text, each carefully and
thoughtfully selected to best coincide with the oral reading strategy.
Along with these titles is a new appendix that features more than 100
titles. Taken together, then, we provide approximately 300 of what we
consider the best titles to help you teach the oral reading strategies in
this text. The majority of these books have 2007–2008 copyright dates.
Fifth, perhaps one of the best ways for children to feel a part of a
classroom community is to provide them with opportunities to interact with all students in the class in different grouping configurations.
Figure C shows the oral reading strategies in this book and the grouping size you can use for each activity. Some call for more than one
group size within a lesson. As you can see, the oral reading strategies
lend themselves well to this flexible grouping arrangement.
Figure C. Oral Reading Strategies and Group Sizes
Oral Reading Activities/
Possible Group Sizes
Developing Comprehension
• Think-Aloud

• Imagery

• Directed Listening Thinking Activity

• Look for the Signals

• Say It Like the Character

• Rapid Retrieval of Information

• Read to Discover

Sharing and Performing
• Revised Radio Reading

• Shared Book Experience

• Choral Reading

• Readers Theatre

• Read Around
• Poetry Club

Struggling Reader
• Read-Aloud

• Paired Reading

• Recorded Texts
• Fluency Development Lesson

Finally, there are several websites that provide some practical ideas
for ways to extend the ideas we present in this book. We feature several
of these websites in Appendix B. We make no claim that this list is
exhaustive. Rather we offer it as a starter list of what we consider to be
some of the best sites to assist you in teaching your students.
In 1925, Nila Banton Smith stated, “Our present social needs
demand more efficient methods of reading than those which have been
employed in the past” (iii). Without question, these words ring true in
the new millennium, particularly as they relate to using the purposeful
and meaningful oral reading strategies that form the content of this
book. We wish to underscore, however, that oral reading supplements
and complements silent reading rather than replaces it. Instead of
positioning ourselves on an either/or continuum, we suggest using
both modes of reading to best help children become avid readers who
not only have the skill to read, but the will, too!
Michael F. Opitz
Grade Levels: K–5
Much research has revealed that students who have difficulty comprehending often fail to realize that the purpose of reading is to understand a message (Johns 1984, 1986; Opitz 1989). The Think-Aloud is
one of the best ways to help them see that reading is about comprehending and that readers can and do use a variety of strategies to overcome hurdles that interfere with meaning. During a Think-Aloud, the
teacher verbalizes her thoughts while reading aloud, which shows students what experienced readers actually do to ensure comprehension.
Davey (1983) lists five strategies that poor comprehenders appear to
lack: predicting, forming mental images while reading, using what
they already know about the topic (prior knowledge), monitoring how
well they are comprehending during reading, and fixing problems as
they occur when reading. You can highlight these strategies during the
Teaching Suggestions (based on Davey 1983)
1. Select a passage to read aloud. The passage should have points that
will pose some difficulties, such as ambiguity and unknown words.
2. Begin reading the passage aloud while students follow along. When
you come to a trouble spot, stop and think through it aloud while
students listen to what you have to offer.
3. Once you have completed reading orally, invite students to add
their thoughts to yours.
4. Pair up students and have them practice the procedure with one
another. Each can take turns reading and responding to the other.
5. Have students use the procedure when they are reading silently.
Readers could use a form such as Figure 2–2 to remind themselves
of what they need to be doing to ensure comprehension and to
evaluate themselves.
How Did I Do When Reading?
Round Robin
Name _____________________________________ Date _______________
Title of selection __________________________________________________
a lot
1. I made predictions.
2. I was able to form a picture in my mind.
3. I made connections.
4. I knew when I was having problems.
5. I did something to fix my problems.
Figure 2–2. How Did I Do When Reading?
© 2008 Michael F. Opitz and Timothy V. Rasinski, from Good-bye Round Robin: 25 Effective Oral Reading
Strategies, Updated Edition. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Suggested Titles
(Last, First)
Grade Levels
Copper Sun
Draper, Sharon M.
Simon Pulse/2006
The Birthday Tree
Fleischman, Paul
Oh, Brother!
Grimes, Nikki
A Sweet Smell of Roses
Johnson, Angela
The Jupiter Stone
Lewis, Paul O.
The Mozart Question
Morpurgo, Michael
Colors of Mexico
Olawsky, Lynn A.
First Avenue Editions/1997
Tulip Sees America
Rylant, Cynthia
I Love My Hair
Tarpley, Natasha
Little, Brown/2003
Old Turtle and the
Broken Truth
Wood, Douglas
Teacher Voices
To demonstrate the Think-Aloud procedure to his fourth graders,
Michael used a legend from Eagle Walking Turtle’s Full Moon Stories:
Thirteen Native American Legends (1997). Because the class was reading legends, he felt that the demonstration would better help students
apply what they had learned to their actual reading experiences. After
looking at the cover, he commented, “Just from reading this title, I can
Round Robin
tell that this is going to be a book filled with legends. In fact, the
author even tells me that there will be thirteen legends in this book.”
He then stated, “I already know something about legends. Legends are
stories that state traditions and beliefs of a given group of people. I’ll
bet that these stories will be about some of the traditions and beliefs of
Native American people.” He then provided students with a copy of
“The Magpie,” the first legend in the book and the one that he would
use for the remainder of his Think-Aloud. He began reading aloud as
the students followed along. He read the first two paragraphs, stopped,
and commented, “I’m getting a picture of the house where the story is
told. It is made of logs and it has a wood stove to keep everyone
warm.” He then read the next paragraph and once again stopped and
commented, “This reminds me of how my cousin used to tell me stories. Instead of sitting in a circle on the floor, though, we sat on the
bed.” He read the next paragraph, stopped, and commented, “Wow! I
am surprised that the Thunder-beings would think that the people
were not worth saving. I expected them to believe this already.” He
then continued reading and stopped after reading the word astonished,
at which point he stated, “‘Astonished.’ Hmm. I wonder what that
means. This is a new word for me. I better read that sentence again
and see if the other words can help me figure out what it means.”
A close analysis of this scenario reveals that Michael focused on
several strategies that poor comprehenders often need to be taught to
use. The first comment helps students to see how an experienced
reader makes predictions, whereas the second shows students how a
reader uses prior knowledge to make connections with new reading
material. The third shows that good readers form visual images when
they read. The fourth comment once again shows how a reader uses
prior knowledge to make connections with the reading. The last two
comments demonstrate monitoring one’s comprehension and fixing a
part that interferes with meaning.
• While several strategies were modeled in Michael’s Think-Aloud,
keep in mind that not all need to be present in all Think-Aloud sessions. In fact, you may want to focus on one or two of the strategies
to better help students use them when reading on their own—the
ultimate goal of this instruction.
• Reverse Think-Alouds (Block 1997) add some variety and can help
you determine whether students are internalizing the specific strategies they need to use when reading. With this procedure, students
ask you what you are thinking rather than being told. You ask the
student(s) to follow along silently while you read orally and to stop
you during your reading to ask questions about what you are thinking at a given time. These questions can focus on how you figured
out a given word, clarify what the author is trying to say, or summarize a given section. The types of questions that students ask can
reveal which strategies they are focusing on and which need to be
developed further.
From phonics to fluency: Effective teaching of decoding and reading fluency in the elementary
16.1 What Is Fluency?
Think about the last time you heard a very fluent speaker. Most likely, the speaker didn’t bungle
the words, but other aspects of the speaking—not just the spoken words—also helped you
understand the message. The person probably spoke in chunks or phrases that made it easy to
follow her or him. Perhaps the rate of speaking was helpful—neither too slow nor too quick.
Perhaps the speaker paused or used his or her voice for emphasis. A fluent speaker helps
listeners understand or comprehend the spoken message. Fluency in speaking is a
multidimensional concept.
Reading fluency is also a multidimensional concept (Kuhn and Stahl 2000; National Reading
Panel 2000). Fluency is like a bridge that connects word decoding to comprehension. This bridge
consists of automatizing word recognition so that readers can pay attention to constructing
meaning rather than word decoding. It also consists of interpretive and prosodic reading with
appropriate expression and rate. Let’s take a closer look at these elements.
Decoding is part of fluent reading. Clearly, someone who is unable to decode the words on a
page isn’t really reading, fluently or not. But mere decoding accuracy is not enough. Proficient
and fluent reading requires effortless, automatic decoding. Readers need to expend as little effort
as possible in the decoding aspect of reading so that their finite cognitive resources can be used
for constructing meaning (LaBerge and Samuels 1974). Consider your own reading, for example;
how often do you stop to analyze a word in order to decode it? Probably rarely. Like most adult
readers, since you recognize the vast majority of the words you encounter instantly and
automatically, you can think instead about making sense of the text—making predictions, asking
questions, creating mental images. So now the fluency “bridge” has two supports: accurate
decoding and automatic decoding, or automaticity in reading.
The third support for the fluency bridge involves parsing or chunking the text into syntactically
and semantically appropriate units and interpreting the text by reading with appropriate
expression, what linguists call prosodic reading or the melodic aspects of oral reading (Schreiber
1991). When a reader reads with appropriate phrasing and expressively, emphasizing certain
words, making extended pauses at certain points, speeding up in some sections and deliberately
slowing down at others, active meaning construction and interpretation is evident. Indeed, one
must comprehend the text in order to decide about where to chunk text and how to read it
Fluency is the ability to read expressively and meaningfully, as well as accurately and with
appropriate speed. Successful reading requires readers to process the surface level of the text in
order to comprehend. The goal of reading is comprehension, of course, but proficiently
processing the surface level allows the reader to direct his or her attention to meaning. Reading
fluency enables control over this surface-level text processing (Rasinski 2010).
16.2 Why Is Fluency Important?
Rasinski, T. & Padak, N.D. (2013). From phonics to fluency: Effective teaching of decoding and
reading fluency in the elementary school. NJ: Pearson.
From phonics to fluency: Effective teaching of decoding and reading fluency in the elementary
Part of the answer to this question should be evident in the definition just provided: Fluency is
important because it builds a bridge that enables comprehension. In fact, research into repeated
readings indicates that reading a particular passage several times, a common fluency
instructional activity, leads not only to improvement on that text but also to improvements in
decoding, reading rate, prosodic reading, and comprehension on unfamiliar texts (Dowhower
1987, 1997; Herman 1985; Koskinen and Blum 1984, 1986; Kuhn and Stahl 2000; National
Reading Panel 2000; Rasinski, Reutzel, Chard, and Linan-Thompson 2011). The reading practice
transfers to new, unread text. So fluency is important because it affects comprehension.
Unfortunately, significant numbers of students are not fluent readers. The large-scale National
Assessment of Educational Progress study (Pinnell et al. 1995), for example, concluded that
nearly half of U.S. fourth-graders read below minimally acceptable fluency levels, and only 13
percent of them read at the highest fluency level. From these results, then, we can assume
fluency difficulties among approximately half of the primary-level population. We can also
assume that nearly all primary-level students will benefit from fluency instruction. Thus, fluency
deserves emphasis in your reading curriculum. Next we offer some research-based ways to
accomplish this.
16.3 Helping Students Become Fluent
The first step in planning a fluency component for your reading program involves time. About 15
to 20 minutes each day should be devoted to fluency instruction, and students should have
additional opportunities within each school day to practice fluent reading. Here are brief
descriptions of several activities you can use to provide the basis for your fluency instruction.
Model Fluent Reading
Some students are unaware that they are not fluent readers, and even more have never thought
metacognitively about fluency—what a speaker does to enhance understanding. These students
need to hear expressive reading. They need to hear how fluent readers read, and they need the
opportunity to talk about the nature of fluent reading.
Teacher read-alouds can accomplish both of these goals. Most teachers read aloud to students
each day. Transforming these read-aloud sessions into fluency development opportunities is
easy. First, since the read-alouds must be as fluent as possible, you may need to practice
beforehand. Second, vary the types of texts you select for read-alouds. Find poetry, drama, and
Rasinski, T. & Padak, N.D. (2013). From phonics to fluency: Effective teaching of decoding and
reading fluency in the elementary school. NJ: Pearson.
From phonics to fluency: Effective teaching of decoding and reading fluency in the elementary
speeches; don’t just read storybooks. The variety in text types will help students develop a more
elaborate notion of fluent reading.
Finally, find ways to draw students’ attention to the ways you use your voice to promote fluent
reading. In brief postreading conversations ask questions such as:

What did you notice about my voice?
How did my voice help you pay attention or understand?
How did I use my voice to show happiness or excitement or anger or some other
These brief conversations can help students develop and refine their abstract concepts about
You might also want to experiment by reading a short passage in several ways—fluently, in a
word-by-word laborious manner, too quickly, and so on. Ask students to compare the renditions,
to tell which one was most effective at communicating the author’s message and why. This
practice, too, helps develop self-awareness about fluency. In all, teacher read-alouds, especially
when supplemented with brief conversations about fluency, aid students’ thinking about the
nature of fully fluent reading.
Provide Fluency Assistance (Scaffolding) for Students
Hearing fluent reading is not the same as being a fluent reader. Thus, assisted reading, another
method associated with fluency improvements (Kuhn and Stahl 2000; National Reading Panel
2000), is an important component of a fluency program.
Several methods for assisted reading show promise. One is a simple routine that begins with your
reading a short text to students. This is followed by an invitation for students to follow along
silently as you read aloud again. Group reading is next. Choral reading, antiphonal reading
(dividing the class into groups), even choral reading in silly voices (e.g., like a robot, like a baby)
are all effective and enjoyable assisted reading methods. This routine provides good models of
fluent reading and unobtrusive assistance for children who may need it.
Paired reading, which may involve pairs of students’ choice or pairings of more fluent and
struggling readers, provides another excellent scaffold for children (Eldredge 1990; Eldredge and
Butterfield 1986; Eldredge and Quinn 1988; Topping 1987a, 1987b, 1989, 1995). Partners spend
5 or 10 minutes several times each week reading together. One child reads while the other listens
and follows along silently. The listener offers positive comments about the reader’s fluency.
Rasinski, T. & Padak, N.D. (2013). From phonics to fluency: Effective teaching of decoding and
reading fluency in the elementary school. NJ: Pearson.
From phonics to fluency: Effective teaching of decoding and reading fluency in the elementary
Then the pairs switch roles. Paired reading can also involve two readers reading the same text
aloud simultaneously.
Teacher coaching or feedback is another form of assistance. As students are reading, stroll
around the room to listen. Talk with students about what you hear:

You got all the words right, but you read so fast! It was hard for me to follow you.
I really like how you paused between sentences. This gave me a chance to think about the
author’s message.
I loved how you used your voice in this section! You really sounded angry.
This sort of assistance helps students become aware of their own interpretations and also
provides a good model for children’s own responses to partners.
Listening to prerecorded books while reading them silently is yet another way to provide
assistance (Carbo 1978a, 1978b, 1981; Chomsky 1976; Pluck 1995). This is a good choice for a
listening center activity. It may also provide another authentic audience for practice—students
can create their own recorded books for others to enjoy. Assisted reading of this sort has been
found to be a powerful strategy for improving fluency and comprehension.
Captioned television (see Chapter 18) is an interesting way to support students’ reading. When
students watch television with the captioning on and the volume low, they must focus on the
printed words in order to understand the program. The video often provides the support students
need to read successfully (Koskinen et al. 1993; Postlethwaite and Ross 1992). In addition,
videos of favorite children’s songs from animated musicals, with the lyrics presented in a
captioned format, are available at stores and in public libraries. From our own observations,
young children love watching, singing, and reading these video texts.
Encourage Repeated Readings
Practice leads to fluency in reading in the same way it does in other areas, such as driving a car,
for example, or playing a musical instrument. As we have noted, repeated readings (Rasinski et
al. 2011; Samuels 1979/1997) have been found to improve reading both on the practice passages
and on unfamiliar texts.
Rasinski, T. & Padak, N.D. (2013). From phonics to fluency: Effective teaching of decoding and
reading fluency in the elementary school. NJ: Pearson.
From phonics to fluency: Effective teaching of decoding and reading fluency in the elementary
Repeated readings works best when students have authentic and engaging reasons for practice.
Performance can supply this motivation. The invitation to perform gives students a natural
reason for practicing a passage repeatedly (otherwise known as rehearsal). Moreover, comparing
different oral renditions of the same text often provides opportunities for students to consider
fluency abstractly. For example, discussions with students might focus on questions such as:

How was your second (or third or fourth) reading of this text better?
What did you do differently with your voice? How did this change make the reading
What will you do with your voice the next time to make the reading even better?
Of course, if students are asked to practice a text for performance, they also need performance
opportunities. Many teachers we know have “fluency Fridays”; they devote some time, usually
on Friday afternoons, for students to perform texts that they have rehearsed throughout the week.
Some teachers convert their classrooms into poetry cafés. In Darlene’s third-grade class, for
example, Poetry Club happens every other week.
Students select poems or scripts, practice them throughout the week, and perform for classmates
and parents on Friday afternoon. Students love the authenticity that comes from reading with
expression for an audience. Darlene adds to the authentic atmosphere by turning off the overhead
lights in her classroom and placing a reading lamp near a stool that students can use.
Refreshments such as hot apple cider and popcorn complete the coffeehouse setting. Students in
Darlene’s class have even learned to snap their fingers (as a less noisy and much “cooler”
alternative to clapping) to express their appreciation for each reading.
Other teachers have readers theater festivals. Readers theater involves the performance of a script
without costumes, props, movement, scenery, or memorization of lines. Performers simply stand
in front of the audience and read the script to the audience. Readers theater is very similar to the
dramas and comedies broadcast over the radio in the 1930s through ’50s. The actors simply
stood around a microphone, without costumes, scenery, props, or movement, and read from a
script. Of course, in order for the script to have any impact on the audience it needs to be read
with expression—hence readers theater is a superb activity for promoting practiced or repeated
Nearly any script can be used for readers theater. Some of our favorites are listed in Figures 16.1
and 16.2. However, we have found that scripts students write are often the best (Young and
Rasinski 2011). Writing a script gives students a sense of ownership of the text. To make a
script, students simply find a favorite short story or story segment and recast it in the form of a
script, deleting unneeded parts and adding parts and lines that will contribute to the script.
Usually a four- to five-page (double-spaced) script will result in a 10- to 15-minute performance.
Rasinski, T. & Padak, N.D. (2013). From phonics to fluency: Effective teaching of decoding and
reading fluency in the elementary school. NJ: Pearson.
From phonics to fluency: Effective teaching of decoding and reading fluency in the elementary
This is also a great way to encourage reluctant writers—script writing from an existing story
provides plenty of support. It allows students to examine the story being scripted from the point
of view of the author—what did the original author do to make the story worth publishing?
Online Scripts
Figure 16.1 Resources for Readers Theater
Barchers, S. (1993). Reader’s theatre for beginning readers. Portsmouth, NH: Teacher Ideas
Barchers, S. I. (2001). From Atalanta to Zeus: Readers theatre from Greek mythology.
Portsmouth, NH: Teacher Ideas Press.
Barnes, J. W. (2004). Sea songs: Readers theatre from the South Pacific. Portsmouth, NH:
Teacher Ideas Press.
Bauer, C. F. (1991). Presenting reader’s theatre. New York: H. H. Wilson.
Blau, L. (2000). The best of reader’s theater (Vols. 1 and 2). Bellevue, WA: One from the Heart.
Braun, W. (2000). A reader’s theatre treasury of stories. Calgary, Alberta, Canada: Braun and
Fredericks, A. D. (1993). Frantic frogs and other frankly fractured folktales for readers theatre.
Portsmouth, NH: Teacher Ideas Press.
Fredericks, A. D. (1997). Tadpole tales and other totally terrific treats for readers theatre.
Portsmouth, NY: Teacher Ideas Press.
Fredericks, A. D. (2000). Silly salamanders and other slightly stupid stuff for readers theatre.
Portsmouth, NH: Teacher Ideas Press.
Fredericks, A. D. (2001). Readers theatre for American history. Portsmouth, NH: Teacher Ideas
Rasinski, T. & Padak, N.D. (2013). From phonics to fluency: Effective teaching of decoding and
reading fluency in the elementary school. NJ: Pearson.
From phonics to fluency: Effective teaching of decoding and reading fluency in the elementary
Fredericks, A. D. (2002). Science fiction readers theatre. Portsmouth, NH: Teacher Ideas Press.
McBride-Smith, B. (2001). Tell it together: Foolproof scripts for story theatre. Atlanta, GA:
August House Publishers.
Rasinski, T. and Bagert, B. (2010). Poems for building reading skills (Grades 4, 5, 6).
Huntington Beach, CA: Shell Educational Publishing.
Rasinski, T. and Brothers, K. (2010). Poems for building reading skills (Grades 1, 2, 3).
Huntington Beach, CA: Shell Educational Publishing.
Rasinski, T. and Griffith, L. (2005). Texts for fluency practice (Levels A, B, C). Huntington
Beach, CA: Shell Educational Publishing.
Rasinski, T. and Griffith, L. (2008). Building fluency through practice and performance (Grades
1 through 6). Huntington Beach, CA: Shell Educational Publishing.
Ratliff, G. L. (1999). Introduction to readers theatre: A guide to classroom performance.
Colorado Springs, CO: Meriwether.
Shepard, A. (2004). Readers on stage: Resources for reader’s theater. Olympia, WA: Shepard
Sierra, J. (1996). Multicultural folktales for the feltboard and readers’ theater. Phoenix, AZ: Oryx
Sloyer, S. (2003). From the page to the stage: The educator’s complete guide to readers’ theatre.
Portsmouth, NH: Teacher Ideas Press/Libraries Unlimited.
Figure 16.2 A Sampling of Texts Adaptable
for Readers Theater
Books Already Written in Script Format
Fleischman, P. (1989). I am phoenix. New York: Harper Trophy.
Fleischman, P. (1994). Bull Run. New York: Harper.
Fleischman, P. (2004). Joyful noise. New York: Harper Trophy.
Fleischman, P. (2004). Seedfolks. New York: Harper Trophy.
Fleischman, P. (2008). Big talk: Poems for four voices. New York: Candlewick.
Rasinski, T. & Padak, N.D. (2013). From phonics to fluency: Effective teaching of decoding and
reading fluency in the elementary school. NJ: Pearson.
From phonics to fluency: Effective teaching of decoding and reading fluency in the elementary
Hall, D. (1994). I am the dog, I am the cat. New York: Dial. (The form of the book can also be
used for students to write their own books that compare and contrast characters, events, or
things—e.g., I am a Democrat, I am a Republican.)
Hoberman, M. (2001). You read to me, I’ll read to you: Very short stories to read together.
Boston: Little, Brown.
Hoberman, M. (2004). You read to me, I’ll read to you: Very short fairy tales to read together.
Boston: Little, Brown.
Hoberman, M. (2005). You read to me, I’ll read to you: Mother Goose tales to read together.
Boston: Little, Brown.
Hoose, P. and Hoose, H. (1998). Hey, little ant. Berkeley, CA: Tricycle Press.
Johnson, A. (1989). Tell me a story, Mama. New York: Orchard.
Raschka, C. (1993). Yo! Yes? New York: Orchard.
Rasinski, T., Harrison, D., and Fawcett, G. (2009). Partner poems for building fluency. New
York: Scholastic.
Easy Books for Recasting as Scripts
Brett, J. (2000). Hedgie’s surprise. New York: Penguin Group.
Carpenter, S. (1998). The three billy goats gruff. New York: HarperFestival.
Cronin, D. (2000). Click, clack, moo: Cows that type. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Fox, M. (1987). Hattie and the fox. New York: Bradbury.
Kellogg, S. (1987). Chicken Little. New York: HarperCollins.
Lester, H. (1990). Tacky the penguin. New York: Sandpiper.
Lobel, A. (1979). Frog and toad are friends. New York: Harper Trophy. (All the Frog and Toad
books are good for recasting as scripts.)
Lobel, A. (1983). Fables. New York: HarperCollins.
Martin, B. (1983). Brown bear, brown bear, what do you see? New York: Henry Holt.
Schachner, J. (2003). Skippyjon Jones. New York: Scholastic.
Seuss, Dr. (1960). Green eggs and ham. New York: Random House.
Rasinski, T. & Padak, N.D. (2013). From phonics to fluency: Effective teaching of decoding and
reading fluency in the elementary school. NJ: Pearson.
From phonics to fluency: Effective teaching of decoding and reading fluency in the elementary
Trivizas, E. (1993). The three little wolves and the big bad pig. New York: Scholastic.
Challenging Books for Recasting as Scripts
Blume, J. (1974). The pain and the great one. New York: Bradbury.
Brown, M. (1992). Arthur babysits. Boston: Little, Brown. (All the Arthur books are good
candidates for recasting as scripts.)
Caseley, J. (1991). Dear Annie. New York: Greenwillow.
Champion, J. (1993). Emily and Alice again. San Diego: Harcourt, Brace.
Henkes, K. (1996). Chrysanthemum. New York: Mulberry.
Henkes, K. (2010). Wembley worried. New York: Greenwillow.
Karlin, B. (1992). Cinderella. Boston: Little, Brown.
Kimmel, E. A. (1994). Anansi and the talking melon. New York: Holiday House.
Rylant, C. (2007). Gooseberry Park. New York: Sandpiper.
Steig, W. (1982). Dr. De Soto. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
Martinez, Roser, and Strecker (1999) describe a weekly classroom routine in which secondgraders formed into repertory groups. On Mondays, the teacher would read the stories on which
their scripts were based. Students then worked on their scripts throughout the week and
performed their scripts before an audience on Fridays. In just 10 weeks of doing readers theater,
the second-graders made reading rate increases that were 2.5 times greater than two similar
classes of second-graders who did not do readers theater. Other measures of reading, including
informal reading inventories, also demonstrated significant gains for the readers theater students.
Mrs. Carter, one of the second-grade teachers, said that readers theater helped her students in two
ways: “The first is comprehension that results from having to become the characters and
understand their feelings, and the second is the repetition and practice” (p. 333). A growing body
of research supports the use of readers theater to promote fluency and reading achievement in the
primary (Young and Rasinski 2009) and intermediate (Griffith and Rasinski 2004) grades.
Rasinski, T. & Padak, N.D. (2013). From phonics to fluency: Effective teaching of decoding and
reading fluency in the elementary school. NJ: Pearson.
From phonics to fluency: Effective teaching of decoding and reading fluency in the elementary
An interesting twist on readers theater makes use of technology—more specifically, podcasting
(Vasinda and McLeod 2011). Podcasting allows a computer to be turned into an audio-recording
device. (Free audio-recording software is available online from Audacity, at The audio recording, or podcast, is an electronic audio file,
rather than a physical cassette tape that is easily lost or broken. The beauty of podcasting is that
podcast recordings can easily be stored and organized on a computer; they can also be
electronically transported to other locations (students’ homes, other classrooms and schools) as
well as posted on websites for instant access by others. In essence, podcasting is a simple way
for students to perform and publish the scripts (and other texts) that they have rehearsed.
In a readers theater–podcast study (Vasinda and McLeod, 2011) struggling second- and thirdgrade students, working in small heterogeneous groups, spent 10 to 15 minutes Monday through
Thursday rehearsing a different script each week. During these rehearsal days, the teacher would
monitor and assist groups of students as they practiced, model expressive reading, and meet with
small groups for targeted instruction. On Fridays each group recorded its script as a podcast.
Later students listened to their own and their classmates’ voice recordings. Results of a 10-week
study indicate that students in the readers theater–podcast routine made, on average, over a
year’s growth in reading comprehension. Moreover, both students and teachers noted that the
instructional routine was challenging, but also satisfying, and an authentic use of repeated
Another approach to repeated reading is to encourage students to practice so that they can read to
buddies in a lower grade-level class. Students love being able to perform for their younger
buddies and help them in reading. The younger students, also, are motivated to read by the
example their older buddies demonstrate. Gregg’s fourth-graders have a date once a week with
Lisa’s first-graders. They alternate classrooms for their visits and bring blankets, pillows, and
stuffed animals for their literary rendezvous. The fourth-graders practice their reading throughout
the week so that the first-graders will hear fluent and meaningful presentations of their stories.
Both groups of students love their meetings and even correspond on classroom email about
books to be read.
Older students can also create recorded books for their younger buddies to read and listen to
when time is available. The use of technology (i.e., podcasting) makes recording books and other
texts easier than ever. Before recording, older students will need to practice reading the texts
Rasinski, T. & Padak, N.D. (2013). From phonics to fluency: Effective teaching of decoding and
reading fluency in the elementary school. NJ: Pearson.
From phonics to fluency: Effective teaching of decoding and reading fluency in the elementary
several times so that the recorded reading is read with expression, meaning, and minimal word
recognition errors. Older students love to insert personal introductions, sound effects and audible
cues for page turns into their tapes. The younger students benefit from a growing library of
favorite recorded books.
Prerecorded books also have superb potential for use with ELL (English language learner)
students. Pat Koskinen and colleagues (1993) found that having ELL students take home
prerecorded books for reading practice resulted in increased reading achievement and interest as
well as greater self-confidence in students. Those children who were the least proficient readers
reported practicing their reading more often than their more proficient classmates. Koskinen and
colleagues created two readings for each story on each tape. The first reading was a slower, more
deliberate presentation, and the second was a faster, more fluent rendition. This permitted
students to move from an initial focus on words and phrases to a more fluent presentation of the
Many students are motivated by the opportunity to read with friends. Pat Koskinen and Irene
Blum (1984, 1986) found that repeated readings work very well in what they called paired
repeated reading. Each student reads a passage to a partner several times. The partner’s role is to
provide positive feedback and assistance. After several readings, the roles are reversed. Koskinen
and Blum found that students enjoyed the alternative format and demonstrated strong gains in
fluency, word recognition, and comprehension doing the paired repeated reading as little as 15
minutes three times per week for a little over a month.
16.4 Focus on Phrases and Phrase
An important part of reading fluency is the ability to read in phrases, as opposed to
word-by-word reading (Schreiber 1980, 1991). Consider the following sentences:

The principal said the teacher was very helpful.
Woman without her man is nothing.
Rasinski, T. & Padak, N.D. (2013). From phonics to fluency: Effective teaching of decoding and
reading fluency in the elementary school. NJ: Pearson.
From phonics to fluency: Effective teaching of decoding and reading fluency in the elementary
Depending on how you phrase the first sentence, the principal or the teacher is helpful. And in
the second, either woman or man could be interpreted to “be nothing.” Punctuation within
sentences sometimes helps readers phrase the text properly. More often, readers must separate
the meaningful elements of a sentence without the help of punctuation. This is not an easy task
for some readers. Many younger readers, especially those who have developed a word-by-word
reading habit, may have difficulty in seeing that phrases, more than individual words, carry
All the activities we have described in this chapter, along with wide reading, will help students
develop sensitivity to phrase boundaries. As readers read or listen to fluent reading they need to
attend to the phrasing in the reading. Another approach to developing phrasing is to mark or
highlight phrase boundaries in the text itself, using a slash mark, vertical line, or other marking
to specify the boundary (see Figure 16.3). Marking phrase boundaries can improve fluency,
reading performance, and comprehension, especially with less able readers (Rasinski 1990;
Rasinski, Yildirim, and Nageldinger, in press).
Figure 16.3 Example of Phrase-Cued Text
Simply embedding slash marks into a passage / at phrase and sentence junctures / can have a
positive effect / on students’ own phrasing, / fluency, / and comprehension. For students who do
not have a good understanding / of how sentences are phrased or chunked /, the slash marks
provide direct visual cues / that enable students’ own phrased reading.
When marking, keep the text reasonably short—no more than two pages at a time. Have students
read the text once or twice in one day. On the following day have students read the same text
without the phrase markings. This will give students repeated reading practice and help them
transfer their syntactic understandings of text phrasing to unmarked texts.
Word recognition practice can also take on a phrased nature. Rather than always presenting sight
words or word bank words in isolation, they can occasionally be taught in the form of phrases.
In the car
My old dog
When it rains
By the river
Rasinski, T. & Padak, N.D. (2013). From phonics to fluency: Effective teaching of decoding and
reading fluency in the elementary school. NJ: Pearson.
From phonics to fluency: Effective teaching of decoding and reading fluency in the elementary
Inside the house
This adds variety to word recognition practice and emphasizes the notion that words are almost
always read in the context of phrases and sentences.
16.5 Choose Texts Carefully
The texts students read can help or hinder their fluency. We all become less fluent when asked to
read difficult or unfamiliar text. Often, students with fluency difficulties attempt to read texts that
are too difficult. Such texts ensure a lack of fluency, perpetuating the students’ self-images as
poor readers.
If we accept the idea of performance providing the motivation for repeated readings, then we
need to consider the types of texts that lend themselves to performance. Texts meant to be read
aloud, like poetry, scripts, speeches, monologues, dialogues, and jokes or riddles, are perfect for
fluency development. Storybooks may be good choices for fluency practice too, especially if
students will read them to a younger audience.
When teaching fluency, choose texts that are relatively easy in terms of word recognition and
syntactic complexity. Reading easier texts helps students develop power and confidence in their
More challenging texts may also be appropriate for fluency instruction when practice and
support is provided. Stahl and Heubach (2005) found that children can read more difficult
material very successfully (and accelerate their reading growth) if the teacher provides adequate
scaffolding in the form of repeated, assisted, or guided reading. So if the text is difficult, be sure
to provide sufficient support before and during reading to ensure student success.
Material with a strong sense of voice works well for fluency instruction. When students reread
such material, their practice is aimed at re-creating the author’s voice. Poetry, speeches, songs,
narratives, dialogues, monologues, journal entries, letters, and jokes generally have a greater
sense of textual voice than informational text that is often presented in a dismembered, thirdperson voice. Figure 16.4 lists resources for finding songs to read and sing.
Rasinski, T. & Padak, N.D. (2013). From phonics to fluency: Effective teaching of decoding and
reading fluency in the elementary school. NJ: Pearson.
From phonics to fluency: Effective teaching of decoding and reading fluency in the elementary
Predictable or patterned text (see Chapter 5), as found in poetry (see Chapter 7), is particularly
well suited to helping students develop fluent reading. Their distinct and easily detected patterns
make them not only easy to read but also require readers to attend to the pattern through phrasing
and expression. Patterned or predictable texts are easy to memorize. Although students may take
justifiable pride in memorizing a text, from a reading standpoint this is a concern. Memorized
texts do not have to be examined visually (or read), so the visual representations of words do not
find a way into students’ memories. Thus, when using patterned texts, pull words out of the
context (you choose some and have students choose some), write them on the class word wall or
in individual word banks, practice reading and chanting them in isolation, sort and analyze them
for particular features, and play games with them so that students find themselves visually
analyzing the words deeply and fully.
Figure 16.4 Websites for Finding Songs to
Read and Sing
Poetry and song lyrics for children are especially well suited for fluency instruction (Wilfong
2008). These patterned texts have the advantage of being short, rhythmic, easy to learn, and are
meant to be performed for an audience, thus lending themselves to repeated readings while
appealing to many grade levels. Every elementary teacher should have several poetry anthologies
in order to celebrate poetry every day of the school year. (See Figure 16.5 for online poetry
resources.) Teachers and children can also compose original verse or verse modeled after
favorite poems, which can be put together into class collections.
Figure 16.5 Children’s Poetry Online
A Rhyme a Week:
Children’s Poetry:
Rasinski, T. & Padak, N.D. (2013). From phonics to fluency: Effective teaching of decoding and
reading fluency in the elementary school. NJ: Pearson.
From phonics to fluency: Effective teaching of decoding and reading fluency in the elementary
Classic Poetry for Children:
Jump Rope Rhymes:
Speeches are also wonderful sources for fluency instruction. Like drama, speeches are meant to
be performed and heard by others rather than read silently. Using speeches from history is a great
way to incorporate fluency instruction and practice into social studies. Figure 16.6 offers online
sites where you can find great speeches for fluency work.
Figure 16.6 Websites for Speeches
Inaugural Addresses of U.S. Presidents:
History Channel: Great Speeches: (search on speeches for
videos of notable speeches)
The History Place, Great Speeches Collection:
Gifts of Speech: Women’s Speeches from Around the World:
Famous American Speeches:
Notable American Speeches:
16.6 Synergistic Instruction—The Fluency
Development Lesson
The most potent fluency instruction incorporates multiple components in a synergistic manner
(by synergy we mean that the instruction that combines effective components is more effective
Rasinski, T. & Padak, N.D. (2013). From phonics to fluency: Effective teaching of decoding and
reading fluency in the elementary school. NJ: Pearson.
From phonics to fluency: Effective teaching of decoding and reading fluency in the elementary
that the sum of those components taught separately). The Fluency Development Lesson (FDL)
(Rasinski, Padak, Sturtevant, and Linek 1994; Zimmerman and Rasinski, in press), which we
developed and have tested, is a good example of this synergy. We originally devised the FDL for
teachers who work with primary-grade children experiencing difficulty in achieving even initial
stages of fluent reading. It combines several aspects of effective fluency instruction in a way that
maximizes students’ reading in a relatively short period of time (10 to 15 minutes) and is
intended as a supplement to the regular reading curriculum. We have found the beginning of
each day is a good time to do the FDL, as a sort of warm-up for school. Teachers make copies of
brief passages, usually poems of 50 to 200 words, for each child.
A typical daily Fluency Development Lesson looks like this:
1. The teacher distributes copies of the text.
2. The teacher reads and rereads the text orally to the class while students follow along
silently with their own copies.
3. The teacher and students discuss text content as well as the prosodic quality of the
teacher’s reading.
4. The entire class reads the text chorally several times. The teacher creates variety by
having students read different verses or portions of the text in groups.
5. The class divides into pairs. Each pair finds a quiet spot, and one student reads the text to
a partner three times. The partner’s job is to follow along in the text, provide help when
needed, and give positive feedback to the reader. Next, the roles are switched. The
partner becomes the reader and reads the text three times as well.
6. Students regroup, and the teacher asks for volunteers to perform the text. Individuals,
pairs, and groups of up to four perform the reading for the class. Students may also
perform for the school principal, secretary, custodian, and other teachers and classes. The
performing students are lavished with praise. Performances may also be recorded as
7. Students and teachers choose words from the text for closer examination and study (e.g.,
rhyming words) and addition to word banks. Words can be practiced and sorted at
various times throughout the school day.
8. Students take a copy of the text home to read to their parents and other relatives. Parents
are asked to listen and to praise their child’s efforts.
Our experience with the FDL indicates that, when employed three to four times a week over
several months, it is easily implemented by teachers and parents, enjoyed by students, and leads
to significant improvements in students’ fluency and overall reading, considerably beyond their
previous progress. The FDL is the core lesson in the Kent State University reading clinic where
students routinely make progress in word recognition, fluency, and comprehension well beyond
what would normally be expected (Zimmerman and Rasinski, in press). We have also found that
the FDL can be adapted for a variety of grade levels in the elementary and middle school.
Our goal in describing the FDL is to help you see what can happen when a lesson format is
created using informed practices as building blocks. Thus, we challenge you to adapt the FDL
for use in your own classroom, with whatever modifications fit your students’ needs.
Rasinski, T. & Padak, N.D. (2013). From phonics to fluency: Effective teaching of decoding and
reading fluency in the elementary school. NJ: Pearson.
From phonics to fluency: Effective teaching of decoding and reading fluency in the elementary
In Conclusion
If reading instruction is to be successful, fluency must become a critical goal of the reading
curriculum. It is not enough for students to become proficient in word decoding. They need to
read with meaning, not just read for meaning. And reading with meaning is what reading fluency
is all about. Fluent reading is accurate, quick, expressive, and above all, meaningful. Fluency is
indeed the bridge between word recognition and comprehension.
Effective fluency instruction reflects three important principles:

Children need to hear models of fluent reading.
Children need support to develop fluency. This can take the form of teacher coaching,
assisted reading, or both. Children also benefit from opportunities to think and talk
metacognitively about fluency.
Children need regular opportunities to practice texts—widely and repeatedly. Repeated
reading works best when performance is the reason for the practice.
The activities we have described in this chapter share a common purpose: to help students
develop the ability to read fluently. Fluency instruction should be woven seamlessly into other
areas of the reading and school curriculum—it should not be turned into a skill-and-drill activity.
This chapter provides a starting place for making fluency instruction an integral part of your
reading curriculum. The next chapter asks you to think critically about the methods and materials
for your fluency and word study instruction.
Rasinski, T. & Padak, N.D. (2013). From phonics to fluency: Effective teaching of decoding and
reading fluency in the elementary school. NJ: Pearson.

Purchase answer to see full

Why Choose Us

  • 100% non-plagiarized Papers
  • 24/7 /365 Service Available
  • Affordable Prices
  • Any Paper, Urgency, and Subject
  • Will complete your papers in 6 hours
  • On-time Delivery
  • Money-back and Privacy guarantees
  • Unlimited Amendments upon request
  • Satisfaction guarantee

How it Works

  • Click on the “Place Order” tab at the top menu or “Order Now” icon at the bottom and a new page will appear with an order form to be filled.
  • Fill in your paper’s requirements in the "PAPER DETAILS" section.
  • Fill in your paper’s academic level, deadline, and the required number of pages from the drop-down menus.
  • Click “CREATE ACCOUNT & SIGN IN” to enter your registration details and get an account with us for record-keeping and then, click on “PROCEED TO CHECKOUT” at the bottom of the page.
  • From there, the payment sections will show, follow the guided payment process and your order will be available for our writing team to work on it.