Requirements:600 words per question. 600 for Harlem Renaissance and 600 for State Formation. 1200 words altogether but not limited to. Use in text citations. MLA format.I attached the articles below.Discuss the role of the environment (geographical location) in the emergence of the Egyptian civilization.Using two African empires as case studies, discuss the role of long distance trade in the emergence and growth of the western Sudanese polities (kingdoms and empires).With reference to four polities, discuss four factors that aided the process of state formation in Africa before A.D. 1880 (one factor for a polity)For this question, use a different polity (state, empire or kingdom) for illustrating how each of the four factors you selected helped a state to emerge.Factors that aided in State Formation in Africa before A.D. 1880:Geographical location/environment / Cultural homogeneity / Political organization / Economy / Agriculture / Trade/Commerce / Leadership (specific rulers) / Military / Technology (e.g., iron technology) / Migration (spread of ideas and technology)African History and
Asante Empire
Map of Asante Empire
Geography and early history
 History started as a progressive consolidation
of estates into small polities
 Emerged in the late 17th c. as powerful
 Located on the boundary between the forest
and savanna regions
 In the Volta, Pra, and Ofin basins
Early history…
 Founded by members of the Oyoko clan
 Each social and political unit constituting an
 Under the unpopular rule of Denkyira
 Cultural homogeneity and common hatred of
Denkyira were platforms for unity

Obiri Yeboa
 The founding ruler
 Died in the 1670s
Osei Tutu (1670s-1717)

ably assisted by Chief Priest Okomfo Anokye
Unified the members of the Oyoko clan
Established Kumasi as the capital
The Golden Stool as a symbol of the nation
Started the annual Odwira festival
Strong military – Van, Rear, Left, and Right
Opoku Ware
 Grand nephew of Osei Tutu
 last of the great rulers
Political organization and leadership
 Sovereignty was parcellized
 At the apex was the Asantehene
 Political authority devolved through parallel
 Functions of authority are replicated at each
 Political control in tributary provinces rested
on the system of “indirect rule.”
Asante stools
Fall of Asante Empire
 Weakness of central and provincial
 British imperialism
 100-year war
African History and
Mali Empire
Map of Africa
African Kingdoms and Empires
 Located in the savanna
 Ideal for grain
 Strategically located to
control the westernmost
trans-Saharan trade
Early history
 Started out as a polity of the Madingo people
(Kangaba kingdom)
 Spoke the Mande language
 One of the former subject states of Ghana
 Became a powerful kingdom in the 13th c.
Trans-Saharan trade
 Agricultural goods
 Mineral resources
 Gold (Wangara)
 Salt (Taghaza)
 Developed 3 commercial centers

Sundiata (1234-1255)
 Crippled
 Defeated Sumanguru (Soso or Susu
Kingdom) in 1235
 Conquered gold producing regions to the
Mansa Kankan Musa (1307-1337)
 Devout muslim
 Went on pilgrimage, 1324-1325
 Performed pilgrimage on a lavish scale

100 camel loads of gold
500 servants carried gold staff
Very generous on the way
Mansa Musa cont…
 Attracted skilled manpower
 Built efficient administration
 Judicial system based on the Islamic tenets
 Built a strong cavalry
Fall of Mali
 Decline set in by the 1360s
 Internal problems and external threat
 Dynastic disputes
 Weak administrations
 External aggression of the Mossi to the north
and Tuaregs to the south
 The rise of Songhai to the east

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