Identify research articles that pertaining to at least two issues that impact quality of Physical Education in either a positive or negative way.A) Research on Social Issues in Elementary School Physical Education. By: Solmon, Melinda A.; Lee, Amelia M. Elementary School Journal. Jan2008, Vol. 108 Issue 3, p229-239. 11p. Abstract: The social and cultural norms children learn in schools can have a powerful effect on a variety of lifestyle decisions that will affect their physical and mental health. In this article we examine research on social issues in elementary school physical education. We provide an overview of how teachers actions and behaviors affect what children learn in the social context of the gymnasium and, particularly, what they learn about engaging in physical activity. We examine how motor ability, gender, race, ethnicity, and social class influence socialization in physical education and affect childrens choices about engaging actively in learning activities. The theoretical constructs of self-schema and the hidden curriculum are used to illustrate how school experiences interact with what children view as possible for themselves, and how implicit messages enhance or constrain childrens involvement in physical activity. B) Principles of Motor Development for Elementary School Physical Education. By: Thomas, Katherine Thomas; Thomas, Jerry R. Elementary School Journal. Jan2008, Vol. 108 Issue 3, p181-195. 15p. Abstract: Four principles are drawn from approximately 100 years of research in the area of motor development. The principles are (1) children are not miniature adults, (2) boys and girls (children) are more alike than different, (3) good things are earned, and (4) no body (nobody) is perfect. Five sections of this article introduce some of the major assertions warranted by that research organized around the principles. The sections are Physical Growth and Maturation, Motor Skills, Physical Activity, Psychological Factors, and Developmental Skill Acquisition.C) A Comparison of Four Recreation Facilitation Styles and Physical Activity Outcomes in Elementary School Children. By: West, Stephanie T.; Shores, Kindal A. Journal of Park & Recreation Administration. Summer2008, Vol. 26 Issue 2, p115-133. 19p. 1 Diagram, 5 Charts, 1 Graph.Abstract: The prevalence of obesity among children is increasing in the United States (Ogden, Flegal, Carroll, & Johnson, 2002) and has been tied to increased risks of adult obesity and cardiovascular disease (Whitaker, Wright, Pepe, Seidel, & Dietz, 1997). Physical activity, which is defined as any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that results in caloric expenditure, increases energy expenditure and can help prevent obesity (Haapanen, Miilunpalo, Pasanen, Oja, & Vuori, 1997). The socioecological perspective suggests that attention to intrapersonal, interpersonal, environmental, and policy factors are necessary to effectively prevent and then reduce the incidence of childhood obesity through physical activity promotion. We posit that systematic attention to the structure and design of recreation programs is a first step for determining best practices in youth activity promotion during recreation times. The current study examined the physical activity outcomes associated with four common facilitation strategies used in recreation programs. In a sample of 74 predominantly low income youth aged 6 to 11, four types of recreation facilitation were adopted including: (a) skills and drills, (b) scrimmage, (c) modeled play, and (d) free play. Physical activity was objectively measured using Actigraph accelerometers. Results indicated that as a group, youth were most active during modeled play in the presence of college-aged role models.D) The Landscape of Elementary School Physical Education. By: Graber, Kim C.; Locke, Lawrence F.; Lambdin, Dolly; Solmon, Melinda A. Elementary School Journal. Jan2008, Vol. 108 Issue 3, p151-159. 9p. Abstract: Elementary school physical education has repeatedly been shaped by the forces of history. Presently, concerns about the obesity epidemic and the low levels of physical activity in children are exerting a major influence on curriculum. Whereas building physical fitness has been a dominant influence during wartime, the focus today is on (a) providing students with ample opportunities for vigorous physical activity, (b) teaching basic motor skills, and (c) guiding children toward subsequent adoption of physically active lifestyles as adolescents and adults.
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