See AttachmentInstructions: Reply with at least 150 words to classmates post.
Post 1
The term Jim Crow was referred as a mocking slang expression toward black men.
It basically meant to established different rules for both white and black people as a
law was passed on it in the south. Jim Crow laws were based on the theory of white
supremacy. Racism was a huge part of the south back then because most whites
were afraid that the blacks would take their jobs. Politicians mistreated blacks to win
the votes for poor white crackers. The Louisiana General Assembly passed a law to
prevent black and white people from riding together on railroads. Plessy v. Ferguson,
a case challenging the law, reached the U.S. Supreme Court in 1896. Upholding the
law, the court said that public facilities for blacks and whites could be “separate but
equal.” Soon after that, they were considered separate.
Two years later, the court upheld a Mississippi law made for black men to be unable
to vote. Southern states began to limit the voting right to those who owned
property, who knew how to read well, who paid their poll taxes and if you had good
character. Thus In 1896, Louisiana had 130,334 registered black voters! Jim Crow
laws was a major part of life. In South Carolina, black and white textile workers could
NOT work in the same room, walk through the door at the same time, or as little as
look outside of the same window together. Many huge jobs such as industries
refused to hire black workers and unions voted AGAINST allowing blacks in. When
Word War II changed everything about America, blacks were finally able to breathe
again. In 1948, President Harry Truman took action to promote racial equality. He
urged Congress to get rid of the poll tax, enforce fair voting and hiring practices, and
end Jim Crow transportation between states. Racial discrimination was finally
starting to uplift!
Post 2
What was Jim Crow?
Jim Crow laws were state and local laws enforcing racial segregation in the
Southern States. Enacted after the Reconstruction period of 1865–1877,
these laws continued to be enforced until 1965. They mandated racial
segregation in all public facilities in states of the former Confederate States of
America, starting in 1890 with a separate but equal status for African
Americans. Federal law at the time, provided civil rights protection in the South
for freedmen, the African Americans who had formerly been slaves, and former
free blacks. In 1877, Jim Crow laws mandated racial segregation in all public
facilities in the states of the former Confederate States of America, starting in
1890 with a separate but equal status for African Americans. Facilities for
African Americans in the South were consistently inferior and underfunded
compared to those available to White Americans, sometimes they did not exist at
all. For example, schools for African American children were underfunded, with
many of the libraries having second-hand books. Jim Crow laws institutionalized a
number of economic, educational, and social disadvantages for African Americans
in the South.
Would the answer to the previous question serve also to explain
the establishment of Jim Crow in the South?
Yes, the segregation of African Americans that Jim Crow promoted fit into
the current culture of the Southern states after the Civil War. It allowed the
former Confederate States of America, to promote and create a culture that
allowed the segregation of African Americans, further carrying on the view
that African Americans were inferior. White Southerners resented black
Americans, who represented the Confederacys Civil War defeat. Many
whites sought to protect their former status by threatening African
Americans. Jim Crow laws were a ”tool” that allowed the establishment of
segregation against African Americans in the South.
Post 3
The industrial revolution began significantly earlier in Britain than it
did in the United States due to many factors including the vast rural
farmland in the United States and the lack of workers in large urban
areas. This, however, did not last long once the Industrial revolution
began in the United states in 1790. The start of the American
industrial revolution is commonly associated with Samuel Slater and
the opening of his industrial mill in 1790 ( The model
that Samuel Slater used was essentially a carbon copy of the British
industrial mill model. Unfortunately for the United States, this model
included the good and the bad of what the British were experiencing
in their more mature Industrial revolution.
The absence of federal or state oversite and the desire to increase
production of goods and materials at a low cost were a recipe for
disaster. The combination of these two elements leads to a total
disregard for the effects of industry on the environment. The lack of
understanding of what pollution and contamination would have on
the environment in the long term was a factor in the blatant
disregard for the effects of pollutants. This blatant disregard and
lack of comprehension lead to unprecedented pollution by factories.
This was also propagated by the transition to automated production
equipment and the increased use of fossil fuels such as coal and
kerosene. These fuels created much more pollution than previous
fuel sources such as wood and water power. The byproducts of
these new fossil fuel sources often polluted the air and waterways.
The housing crisis in the American city was due to an essential
need, the need for workers to work in factories that had an
insatiable appetite for more and more production. These factories
often operated day and night to increase output requiring more
workers. The population explosion occurred so rapidly that
government oversite was slow to step in and regulate housing
The rise of the tenement is a window into an overwhelmed and
increasingly burdened city structure. Tenements were often
modified houses (townhouses) that had added floors and walls
reducing living square footage but allowing for more tenants to live
in a smaller space. These housing arrangements were often unfit for
human occupation. The lack of space and again the lack of
government oversite are the main reasons for housing problems for
the poor in large cities. The issues of housing for the poor were
increased by corruption, the few laws that were in place were often
circumnavigated by bribes and political favors.
The lack of government oversite, corruption and the insatiable
appetite to increase production and thus profits were the real
driving force in the American cities capability to deal with
environmental pollution and housing of the poor. As we still see in
this day a desire for profit often overlooks negative results until a
government entity steps in and regulates the practices. We can see
this in our everyday lives from EPA regulations to city and county
building codes.

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