I have this research paper and i would like someone to help me to put it in a powerpoint to present it in my class, like a summary of the whole research in 10 minutes presentation. i need nice prepared powerpoint slides. please follow the rubric to do the slides. Thank youAlnuaimi 1
Contaminant Transport in Ecosystems
This paper focus on the study and review of the fate, degradation and transport of organic anthropogenic
chemicals in an ecosystem at differentiated spatial scales that range from local to international. An emphasis is made
on the utilization of molecular markers to study the pathways used. Identification is made on the various sources of
pollutants and dominant degradation pathways are also highlighted and how this may affect the different classes of
pollutants is mentioned (Balis et al. 56). A discussion is further made on the effects of the interaction between the
inter-physical properties and biogeochemical environment in which these pollutants are released.
Currently there is presence of a heightened awareness on the presence and effects of anthropogenic
contaminants and especially their biological impact. Industrialized nations have tried to limit the use of such
chemicals in their jurisdictions, however multinational companies are still using these chemicals in developing
nations. The availability of permissiveness in use of these chemicals has been out of a combination of various
factors that include low education levels and conflicting interests on economy and health. Case in point, in tropical
environments the outbreak of diseases like malaria necessitates the use of chemicals to fight and kill mosquitoes
using DDT (dichloro diphenyl tricholoroethane). The toxicity and effects of this chemical is well known.
Elimination of DDT will only be realized if more cheaper and feasible options are made available.
Various classes of compounds including organ chlorine compounds and polycyclic
aromatic hydrocarbons like DDT and PAH respectively are in a category of chemical compounds that is descried as
both being persistent and organic pollutants (Narayananand and Chandramohanakumar 76). The slow rate of
degradation of these chemical compounds in the environment makes them persistent. These chemicals are lethal as
they undergo bioaccumulation and bio concentration and when this happens the effects on a human system is quite
pronounced and may include neurological and immunological disruption. Even worse and probably more fearful is
that a good number of these chemicals are known to be carcinogenic.
Input of organic pollutants in the ecosystem
PAHs are emitted in the ecosystem after incomplete combustion of hydrocarbon fuels. There are also some
natural sources to some of the PAHs that may include petroleum formation and seeps. PCBs are very stable at high
temperatures and therefore the reference to use them in generators, flame retardants and transformers. PCCDs are
the byproduct of paper mills as these factories use them to bleach paper, it is therefore not uncommon to find them
in paper mill effluents. Agrochemicals are also a popular source of contaminants. Sources include organ chlorine
compounds like DDT and pestsides such as lindane. Highly volatile compounds like carbon tetrachloride are also in
the list. These pollutants can reach terrestrial and groundwater sources through air-water or water-air exchange
Differences in degradable and persistent pollutants are very arbitrary. If a pollutant is deemed to reside in
the environment beyond a decade after initial use in the environment, it can be said to be a persistent pollutant. A
pollutant that breaks down and deco poses in a matter of hours on the contrary is said to be degradable. When
laboratory experiment and studies are conducted to evaluate degradability and persistence, it is important to capture
the lab environment in which this is simulated as the specific environment in which these processes occur can alter
the properties of degradability and persistency. Inherent properties of a chemical have to be taken into account when
accessing persistence of a chemical compound.
Most chemical contaminants emit a single type of or predominant compound into the environment.
However most of these find their way into the environment as mixtures. Creosote as an example distillates into a
chemical mixture with varied components of aromatic hydrocarbons. Pesticides are formulated in industries with
closely related chemicals. A good example is the composition of hexachlorocylcohexane and chlordane (Connell et
al. 56). These two are formulations of closely related isomers of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and cis-chlordane.
Mixtures may only contain a single class of chemicals or may also contain different varying classes of compounds.
Sewage may contain not only nutrients of nitrogen and phosphorous that may lead to eutrophication of the
environment, but may also contain household chemicals in quanitities that are identified as endocrine pollutants and
pharmaceutical waste and toxic metabolites of pharmaceutical chemical compounds.
In the past few decades, POP compounds have been identified as worthy of study and ubiquitous. However
there is an emerging class of pollutants and contaminants that may require attention as well in the coming future due
to a demonstrated ability to have pronounced impact on the ecosystem. These compounds include surfactants and
pharmaceuticals. Surfactants like nonylphenols have proved that they can cause endocrine disruption events. These
chemicals are used in macro amounts in soaps and detergents and will therefore appear in large amount in the
environment. Pharmaceuticals are also metabolites that are in high amounts in the environment and their
concentration is high enough to cause action. Little is known and documented on the occurrence of pathways and
distribution of these contaminants in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Research in this area is however gaining
momentum and is receiving widespread attention in North American and Europe.
Ecosystem transport pathways
Pathways available to transport a contaminant in an ecosystem compartment and within ecosystems are
dependent on the mode in which a pollutant gets discharged into the ecosystem and environment. For instance, soot
particles first get emitted in the atmosphere after an incineration process. These particles may then be subjected to
undergo washing out or atmospheric precipitation by rain and onto the soil or subterranean water sources. Type
predominant transport mechanism is majorly a function of the chemical properties of the pollutant itself and on the
biophysical and chemical properties of the environment in which this contaminant id released.
Incineration and combustion is a chief way of introducing contaminants in the atmosphere. For this reason
environmentalist’s advice accordingly that it’s wrong to incinerate garbage and other kind of garbage as this releases
large quantities of contaminants in the air (McCarthy 76). A large number of substances have been detected and
most of them even in trace amounts. Detections occur in gaseous state and finite particles from waste incinerations
and combustion, spraying and a wide range of other activities depending on context, be it agricultural pesticide
application or a manufacturing industry. In incidences of incineration a number of products are emitted in the
atmosphere: metals, aid gases, and large organic products of incomplete combustion, noncombustible matter, oxides
of nitrogen, sulfur and carbon. When these emissions are released directly into the atmosphere there is a huge
chance that people living near an incineration facility are exposed and affected directly by inhalation or though
ingestion of water and food sources in the vicinity after the sources are contaminated.
Persistence and spatial scale
It is possible for persistent contaminants to be spread beyond the source jurisdiction where they were
emitted initially. A good example of such contaminants includes dioxins mercury and furans. This category of
contaminants is known as semi volatile organic compounds and have vapor pressures that is below 10-2 -10-5 Pascals
at ambient temperature. They also include some high pressure metallic compounds like mercury and low vapor
pressure materials that re incorporated in fine particles. SVCs that are organic and persistent are mostly lipophilic
and can readily be packed into lipid as well as carbon tissues of flora and fauna (Bard 24). If these particles and
elements show tendencies to resistance of biochemical and physical degradation processes they can continue to exist
in an unchanged state. These compounds are in a category being named as persistent organic compounds. It is
possible for these compounds to be re-emitted from their deposited environment sinks in which they partition
because of their vapor pressure.
Scientists has posited that it is possible for POPs undergo a repeated re-emission and deposition from the
soaked in environment, be it water, soil, animals and vegetation. Transport is effected in the vapor phase and
adsorbed in the form of ambient fine particles. A strategy and effort to examine the use of pesticide POP in various
parts of the globe was conducted by sampling barks of trees. This study revealed the transport of very persistent
contaminants over vast distances. The recognition of POP over such huge distances has created and recognized a
need to establish frameworks and management strategies that access dispersion, persistence and the potential
adverse long term effects of contaminants on human beings and animals. A process that can also be used to calibrate
field data as well as validate models adopted for control strategy and decision making.
There are a lot of efforts in academia to transition to a more quantitative based study of characterization of
POPs. These efforts have unfortunately been met by a number of several hindrance factors. Most importantly this
transition to a quantitative based stud requires that a framework be modeled that includes coupled mass exchange at
the existing environmental compartments in linkage of space time and time space dimensions as these greatly
influence transport of contaminants over vast distances. There is also an apparent need to come up with high quality
data to quantify the partitioning of contaminants present in large scale. All known measurements of transport of
vapor-particles partitioning currently is known to have art factual biases due to sampling methods employed.
Deposition and accumulation in soil
Weathering action is responsible for forming soil from a mixture of rocks and minerals as well as other
biochemical actions of living things. Soil is composed and made up of a mixture of several components that include
water, air and solids. The percentage making up soil in the named above constituents determines the method in
which a contaminant will exists and be transported in soil or even be transformed. It is possible for a contaminant to
be lodged and get mixed in the water component of soil, the air in the solids. Soils are also heterogeneous on the
vertical spill and a trench dug reveals that there are several different horizontal layers with varying colors and
textures. Radioactive studies that have been conducted in in agricultural land management reveal that in total lack of
any mechanical tiling of a piece of land falling atmospheric particles can increase and accumulate and are
suspended from a surface soil layer (Mackay 98). Mechanical transport takes place in the longer term by animals
and other plants. It is possible to transport particles on the surface mechanically in the horizontal direction by runoff
water and other debris.
Mass transport on the ground has also occurred as a result of wind erosion. Surface-soil contaminants are
transportable by wind erosion, by mechanical movement deeper into the soil, by leaching, by diffusion, dissolution
in runoff and volatilization to the atmosphere. Transfer on plant surfaces also occurs via resuspension and
deposition. It is also quite possible to transform these compounds by photolysis by chemical degradation and
degradation by microorganisms, both flora and fauna.
Surface water and sediments
Surface chemical water behavior is determined by a number of factors that include rate the velocity of the
water system and chemical reactivity. Water transport is also a function of the particulate water body in
consideration. In low concentration around natural water, contaminants exist in dissolved and sorbed phases. For
slow moving water, advection and dispersion are important. When water is moving at fast speeds, advection
influences mass translocation and all present substances will move uniform speeds as the rest of the water mass.
Contaminants can also be stuck in debris on moving water and these ones may have to undergo a number of other
processes that may altogether alter their stay of residence in water. Such processes include and are not limited to
deposition, agglutination and sedimentation. To understand the transport of contaminant on surface water requires
that one has a good knowledge in water movement, resuspension from the sediment and deposition to the sediment.
Sediment is the soft layer of matter composed of a combination of water, minerals and other matter that rest
at the bottom of a water body after deposition. Water sediment is characterized by two things, an upper layer that is
characterized by a high degree of activity both biological and chemical. In the last layer, there is comparably lesser
activity and chemicals are quite isolated from water. Resuspension and deposition of organic and mineral matter to
sediments is likely to occur continuously in any kind of a water body and is an important mechanism for transfer of
particle bound contaminants to the bottom of the sediment layer.
The world is becoming a more widespread and polluted place with the sources of pollutant having a
widespread impact to vast distances due to transportation of contaminants through several agents that include wind
and water. A framework and quality evidence based studies should be conducted to establish the real impact and
reach of these contaminants. Due to the impact and persistence of some of the contaminants there is need to limit
their use as well as develop cleaner cheaper and more efficient chemicals that will not have negative effects to the
Bard, Shannon Mala. Global transport of anthropogenic contaminants and the consequences for the Arctic marine
ecosystem. Marine Pollution Bulletin 38.5 (1999): 356-379.
Blais, Jules M., et al. Biologically mediated transport of contaminants to aquatic systems. Environmental Science
& Technology 41.4 (2007): 1075-1084.
Connell, Des W., et al. Chemistry of organic pollutants, including agrochemicals. Interactions: Food, Agriculture
and Environment-Volume II (2010): 290.
Mackay, Donald, and Frank Wania. Transport of contaminants to the Arctic: partitioning, processes and models.
Science of the total environment 160 (1995): 25-38.
McCarthy, John F., and John M. Zachara. Subsurface transport of contaminants. Environmental science &
technology 23.5 (1989): 496-502.
Narayanan, T., and N. Chandramohanakumar. Sterols in mangrove sediments of the Cochin estuary. Diss. Cochin
University of Science and Technology, 2006.
CE 341 PROJECT RUBRIC: Paper & Presentation
Beginning or incomplete
Very little background
information provided or
information is incorrect
Some introductory information,
but still missing some major
Introduction is nearly complete,
missing some minor points
graphs, tables, etc.
Figures, graphs, tables contain
errors or are poorly constructed,
have missing titles, captions or
numbers, units missing or
Very incomplete or incorrect
interpretation of trends and
comparison of data indicating a
lack of understanding of results
Most figures, graphs, tables OK,
some still missing some
important or required features
All figures, graphs, tables are
correctly drawn, but some have
minor problems or could still be
Some of the results have been
correctly interpreted and
discussed; partial but incomplete
understanding of results is still
errors, generally readable with
some rough spots in writing style
Almost all of the results have
been correctly interpreted and
discussed, only minor
improvements are needed
Sections in order, contains the
minimum allowable amount of
handwritten copy, formatting is
rough but readable
Audience has difficulty following
presentation because student
All sections in order, formatting
generally good but could still be
All sections in order, wellformatted, very readable
Student presents information in
logical sequence which audience
Student presents information in
logical, interesting sequence
which audience can follow.
Student demonstrates full
knowledge (more than required)
by answering all class questions
with explanations and
Frequent grammar and/or
spelling errors, writing style is
rough and immature
Sections out of order, too much
handwritten copy, sloppy
Audience cannot understand
presentation because there is no
sequence of information.
Student does not have grasp of
information; student cannot
answer questions about subject.
Student uses superfluous visual
aids or no visual aids.
Student is uncomfortable with
information and is able to answer
only rudimentary questions, but
fails to elaborate.
Student occasionally uses visual
aids that rarely support the
Student mumbles, incorrectly
Students voice is low. Student
pronounces terms, and speaks too incorrectly pronounces terms.
quietly for audience in the back
Audience members have
of class to hear.
difficulty hearing presentation.
Cannot work with others in most Works with others, but has
situations. Cannot share
difficulty sharing decisions and
decisions or responsibilities.
Less than 3 grammar/spelling
errors, mature, readable style
Student is at ease and answers
most questions with explanations
and some elaboration.
Introduction complete and wellwritten; provides all necessary
background principles for the
All figures, graphs, tables are
correctly drawn, are numbered
and contain titles/captions.
All important trends and data
comparisons have been
interpreted correctly and
discussed, good understanding of
results is conveyed
All grammar/spelling correct and
Students visual aids relate to the
Students visual aids explain and
reinforce the presentation.
Students voice is clear. Student
pronounces most words correctly.
Most audience members can hear
Works well with others. Takes
part in most decisions and shares
in the responsibilities.
Student uses a clear voice and
correct, precise pronunciation of
terms so that all audience
members can hear presentation.
Works very well with others.
Assumes a clear role in decision
making and responsibilities.
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