Explain how assessment has changed instruction in the past 20 years.In 1987, the so-called assessment movement in U.S. higher education was less than five years old. It had in part been stimulated by a combination of curriculum reform reports that called for greater curricular coherence, the use of powerful pedagogues known to be associated with high learning gains, and knowledge about student outcomes and experiences (http://www.learningoutcomeassessment.org/documents/PeterEwell_005.pdf)Standards-based education reform has a more than 20-year history. A standards-based vision was enacted in federal law under the Clinton administration with the 1994 re-authorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) and carried forward under the Bush administration with the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001.1(http://naeducation.org/Standards_Assessments_Accountability_White_Paper.pdf) Studies showing positive changes in instructional practices because of accountability have also documented significant negative effects. For example, it is again the case that tests have had a stronger impact on teaching than standards. Tested subjects receive much more instructional time than non-tested subjects, driving out art, music, and physical education, but also reducing time for science and social studies, especially for disadvantaged and minority students assigned to increased doses of reading and mathematics. In essence, teachers have been taught to teach to the test, rather than incorporate all those programs which allow a child to be a whole child.Due to assessment, more money is being spent on schools, and there is a greater focus on …This discusses the differences and changes made in classroom assessment within the past 20 years in 858 words.

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