Apply It!Take one element of the theories or ideas presented this week (refer to attached study notes for topic reference do not included them in the writing this is only for reference of topics to be used) and apply it to a real person – for example, someone from current events, ( no politicians please!) business, sports, the entertainment field. Define the terms you’re using, and apply them to an aspect of this person’s life (a specific action, behavior, or decision, for example). How can we understand this person more fully by using this concept to understand him/her?Please keep this discussion professional remembering that our goal is understanding, never condemning or ridiculing.No less than 500 words, must have all content APA cited. Use any person that you would like within the requirements but the person must be approved by me first! No use of Wikipedia or encyclopedias!WEEK 5
Study Notes
I. Classical conditioning of personality
A. Ivan Pavlov discovered the principle of classical conditioning
1. unconditioned stimulus, conditioned stimulus, unconditioned response,
conditioned response
2. the principles of generalization, discrimination and extinction are also
B. These principles help us explain emotional aspects of personality (that is,
these responses can be conditioned)
C. A complex dimension like neuroticism is more difficult to explain, but may be
the result of the environmental requirement of discriminations that are too
0. Some organisms are more easily conditioned than others, and to different
II. Origins of a behaviorist approach
A. Behaviorism was founded by Watson as a way of making personality
psychology a testable science; his views were very deterministic
B Applied Pavlov’s classical conditioning theory to “little Albert, an 1 1-monthold boy
1. Watson believed most of personality was formed via classical
conditioning, just as Albert’s fear was formed
C. Systematic desensitization (repeated introduction of CS without pairing of
UCS) can be used to extinguish classically conditioned responses
III. Radical Behaviorism of B.F. Skinner
A. Believed that environmental consequences control all types of behavior– a
radically deterministic view
1 Developed the principle of “operant conditioning” in which behavior is
changed by its consequences
a. positive vs. negative reinforcement
b. punishment vs. negative reinforcement
2 Developed the “Skinner Box” (not his term) to mold behavior through
operant conditioning
3 Different reinforcement schedules have differing levels of success
a. continuous vs. partial reinforcement
b. ratio vs. interval schedules
c. fixed vs. variable schedules
4. Skinner’s novel Walden Two describes a utopian community in which
behavior is controlled via operant conditioning techniques; his later
nonfiction book, Beyond Freedom and Dignity, formalized these ideas
B. An example of current research based on Skinnerian principles is that in
which Type A behavior pattern was reduced in a group of Japanese men
using operant conditioning methods
C. Skinner believed biological factors determined an organism’s ability to learn
behaviors in response to reinforcement
D. Skinner acknowledged human emotions, but believed them to be irrelevant to
E. Skinner was a radical determinist who believed that people do not have “free
choice in their behavior
IV. Other earring approaches to personality: the desire to combine behaviorism with an
understanding of the internal characteristics of the organism
A. Role of internal drives: Clark Hull
1. Hull was particularly interested in “habits” which he saw as simple
associations between stimulus and response
2. Saw that responses that lead to goal acquisition could themselves be
3. Paid attention to the internal state of the organism while emphasizing
the role of environmental reinforcers
B. Social Learning Theory (SLT): Dollard and Miller
1. SLT posits that our habits are built up in terms of a hierarchy of
acquired secondary drives– this is termed a “habit hierarchy”
a. a habit hierarchy is a learned hierarchy of likelihoods that a
person will produce particular responses in particular situations
2. The idea of secondary drives explains personality constructs (they are
learned secondary drives)
a. the idea of secondary drives in relation to attachment was
examined by Harlow
3. Dollard and Miller agreed that Freud had isolated critical periods of
child development, but their explanations involved the learning that
occurred during those periods
4. How can mental illness be explained?
a. approach-avoidance conflict (being drawn both to and away from
b. approach-approach conflict (being drawn simultaneously to two
equally attractive choices)
c. avoidance-avoidance conflict (being confronted with two equally
unattractive choices)
5. Frustration-aggression hypothesis: argues that aggression always
results when an organism’s progress toward a goal is blocked
V. Evaluation
A. Behaviorism has forced the field of personality to be much more rigorous and
scientifically sound
B. Radical behaviorism has been limited by its refusal to take internal mental
structures and functions into account
C. Behaviorists as a whole are unconcerned with phenomena that aren’t
quantifiable; if it doesn’t fit into an experimental design it is often ignored
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc.

Purchase answer to see full

Why Choose Us

  • 100% non-plagiarized Papers
  • 24/7 /365 Service Available
  • Affordable Prices
  • Any Paper, Urgency, and Subject
  • Will complete your papers in 6 hours
  • On-time Delivery
  • Money-back and Privacy guarantees
  • Unlimited Amendments upon request
  • Satisfaction guarantee

How it Works

  • Click on the “Place Order” tab at the top menu or “Order Now” icon at the bottom and a new page will appear with an order form to be filled.
  • Fill in your paper’s requirements in the "PAPER DETAILS" section.
  • Fill in your paper’s academic level, deadline, and the required number of pages from the drop-down menus.
  • Click “CREATE ACCOUNT & SIGN IN” to enter your registration details and get an account with us for record-keeping and then, click on “PROCEED TO CHECKOUT” at the bottom of the page.
  • From there, the payment sections will show, follow the guided payment process and your order will be available for our writing team to work on it.